Varicose veins are the scourge of modern humanity. But often, the treatment of varicose veins, the scheme of which is selected individually, ends successfully. Sometimes the matter is just therapy and medication, but sometimes the situation is saved only with surgery. What are the ways to get rid of this nasty and serious ailment?
Varicose veins: basic information
Varicose veins are a pathological condition characterized by damage to the venous vessels.
There are special valves in the veins, which act as a kind of closure, preventing blood from flowing downwards (venous blood in the legs flows from the bottom up).
Valve system failure causes blood backflow and congestion.As a result of these processes, the veins become weak, stretched and deformed, unable to cope with the increase in blood pressure.
The result is a symptom familiar to many: bulging veins on the surface of the skin, indicating the dynamic development of pathology.
The whole insidiousness of the disease lies in the fact that in the initial stages it manifests itself as habitual fatigue and heaviness in the legs.
Therefore, many are in no rush to visit a doctor and start sounding the alarm when blue strands become visible on the skin, spoiling the appearance of the legs.
Learn more about the symptoms of early varicose veins here.
The reasons for the development of this pathology are very diverse.These include both congenital anomalies of the vascular system and some provoking factors: a sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, uncomfortable shoes, professional activities associated with prolonged standing.
The treatment of the disease is always carried out comprehensively.The necessary scheme is selected by a specialist based on the stage of development of the disease and the individual characteristics of the organism.
What doctor treats veins?
Varicose veins are not just dilated veins, but also severe valve dysfunction and a failure in blood circulation, leading to serious complications throughout the body. And if the first symptoms appear (swelling of the veins, muscle cramps, constant heaviness in the legs), you should immediately schedule an appointment with a phlebologist.
Depending on the severity of the case, the causes of the disease and the state of health, the doctor will select the most appropriate course of treatment from the currently available options.
The main reasons that lead to varicose veins are: heredity, excess weight, sedentary lifestyle, sedentary work or standing, hormonal imbalance in the body. According to statistics, 40% of adult women and 20% of men have signs of varicose veins.
A phlebologist is involved in the diagnosis of the disease, you should contact himif such symptoms appear:
- Heaviness in the legs that worsens towards the end of the day.
- Rapid fatigue of the legs when walking a lot.
- Leg pain.
- The appearance of a fine vascular mesh on the legs.
- Swelling of the legs.
- Seizures that increase in intensity at night.
- Itching of the skin of the lower extremities.
Little by littleatrophy of the muscle fibers of the superficial veinsdevelops, the blood vessels lengthen, expand, become tortuous, nodules appear that protrude above the surface of the skin. The skin over the enlarged veins turns bluish-red, dry and hot, ulcers appear due to nutritional disorders of the tissues.
Due to dystrophic changes in the subcutaneous fat layer, lipodermatosclerosis can develop, a dangerous complication of varicose veins in the legs, the treatment of which with conservative methods may not be successful.
To avoid the serious consequences of varicose veins, phlebologists advise their patientsto start treatment earlywhen the first signs of the disease appear.
Sclerotherapy is very effective, which consists of injecting a special sclerosing substance into the vessels using a syringe with the finest needle. Venous lumens tighten, the edges of the tears weld together, thus stopping the leakage of blood out of the vessels. The substance itself, having fulfilled its function, is absorbed.
This method removes all blemishes and provides an excellent cosmetic result. But after the procedure, it is necessary to maintain the condition of the veins with additional therapy and wear compression clothing.
Almost 10 years ago, a laser, or rather endovenous laser coagulation, began to be used with great success in medicine to combat varicose veins. Treat veins as follows:
- Under local anesthesia, a small puncture is made in the vein.
- An optical fiber is inserted into the resulting hole.
- The laser acts on the damaged areas, sealing the damage.
- Then a new cloth appears at the sealed place.
The operation is not performed "blindly", the process is monitored through an ultrasound machine, so there is practically no risk of failure. Also, the absence of significant incisions excludes painful sensations, the formation of hemorrhages and a violation of adjacent tissues.
After the procedure, you should bandage the affected areas or wear compression stockings and stockings.
Radiofrequency ablation is often used and the high frequency current is successfully treating varicose veins. It happens as follows:
- The vein is perforated.
- A catheter is inserted into the hole.
- Radiation enters the container through it.
- The conductor acts at the molecular level, changing the protein molecules of the damaged vein.
The method allows you to quickly treat all venous nodes and no special postoperative therapy is required.
Methods to treat varicose veins
There are two of them: conservative and surgical. The patient is faced with an urgent question: how to treat varicose veins in the legs without surgery. When choosing a method, the doctor takes into account the signs, the stage of the disease, the presence of complications, concomitant diseases and the age of the patient. Non-surgical methods of removing varicose veins of the lower extremities give good results only when the symptoms of the pathology are still weak.
To stop the degradation of affected vessels, please help:
- drug therapy;
- compression treatment;
- physical therapy exercises;
- traditional medicine recipes;
Phlebologists try to choose exclusively non-pharmacological treatments for varicose veins of the lower extremities for women during pregnancy. First of all, it concerns compression underwear, gymnastic exercises, physiotherapy, massage, diet. If drugs are still needed, only drugs for external use are prescribed.
The debate continues on whether hirudotherapy helps with varicose veins. The hirudin produced by leeches, which penetrates the venous system of the lower extremities, thins the thick blood. However, today there are many modern drugs with the same property. In addition, there are risk factors for the use of leeches: vascular infection, allergic reactions.
If necessary, the treatment of varicose veins is done by radical methods. This:
- ozone therapy;
- laser coagulation;
- surgical intervention.
Sclerotherapy: injection into a diseased vein of a drug that "sticks" the dilated vessel. Stop pumping blood and gradually dissolve. The maximum effectiveness of sclerotherapy is achieved at an early stage of pathology. A similar method is ozone therapy: a part of this gas is injected with a syringe into the lumen of the small veins and the vessels are also "glued".
Cold is used during the course of cryotherapy procedures. During electrocoagulation, a high-frequency current is delivered to the vessels through a very thin electrode. Laser treatment of varicose veins is also an effective modern method, especially when used in combination with conservative methods. At the same time, the cosmetic result is high: after a few weeks, the patient has no scars and scars.
However, surgical removal is the most effective treatment that allows you to radically get rid of varicose veins when drug therapy does not produce the desired result. Diseased vessels are removed through local subcutaneous incisions. After surgery, the leg will be tightly bandaged, and after three to four hours, the patient will be able to walk.
Principles of medical treatment of varicose veins
Effective treatment of varicose veins is possible only if the selected drugs prevent the mechanisms of the development of pathology, the destruction of vascular walls and valves.
The main tasks of the pharmacological treatment of varicose veins are:
- restoration of blood circulation;
- strengthening of the venous walls;
- increased vascular tone;
- reduce the viscosity of blood;
- prevention of blood clots;
- valve system standardization;
- elimination of inflammatory processes;
- normalization of blood circulation in capillaries.
Medicines are indispensable in the complex treatment of the disease.
They are also widely used for preventive purposes, which is especially important for people at risk of developing pathology.
To date, there are a large number of medications for the treatment of varicose veins in the legs and they are all different in composition and mechanism of action.
Consult a doctor
Varicose veins are a serious diseasewhich, if treated incorrectly or not, can threaten various complications that are dangerous to people's health and lives.
HelpVital Vessel Thromboembolism, Thrombophlebitis, Trophic Ulcers - This is not a complete list of complications from varicose veins that pose a threat to humans.
In this regard, you shouldn't even try to self-medicate.
Home experiments with drug selection can make the situation worse or be ineffective.
In any case, this is a waste of time, health and funds.
Therefore, you should contact a phlebologist. Only a specialist will be able to correctly select the medications and work out the treatment regimen to obtain the maximum benefit for the patient.
What medications are used
The complex treatment of varicose veins consists of the use of several groups of drugs at the same time:
In addition, to enhance the therapeutic effect,means of systemic and local influence are used.
Creams, gels, ointmentsare used as topical preparations. When choosing drugs for varicose veins and thrombophlebitis, it should be noted that it is the agentin the form of an ointment that is characterized by the highest content of the active ingredient.
Important!A common contraindication to all local remedies is the violation of the integrity of the skin.
As a general rule, these medications are applied several times a day and the product should be rubbed in with light movements from the bottom up.
Drug groups and their effects
In venous varicose veins, medicinal substances are classified according to the type of action inthree main groups:
- Venotonic or phlebotropic agents;
- blood thinning agents (anticoagulants) and drugs that inhibit platelet adhesion (antiplatelet agents);
- anti-inflammatory drugs.
Research and medical practice have proven the efficacy of phlebotonics developed on the basis of natural flavonoids: diosmin and hesperide. These substances not only protect the cells of the veins, but also stimulate the outflow of lymph and stabilize the work of the capillaries. Simultaneous administration of combined drugs, in which both flavonoids are present, is especially effective.
More often, phlebotropic agentstake 2 to 3 months in courses. It is important that the reception coincides with the hot season, when the load on the boats increases due to the high air temperature and the use of large volumes of water. If varicose veins are accompanied by chronic venous insufficiency, phlebotonics are constantly taken in half the dose.
A patient with a diagnosis of varicose veinsshould receive systematic treatment from the beginningto prevent the development of the disease and reduce the likelihood of complications.
The second task is solved with drugs that thin the blood (anticoagulants) and improve its fluidity, preventing the formation of thrombotic clots (antiplatelet agents).
The formation of blood clots, their separation from the vascular wall, and movement along the venous bed leads to the overlapping of the vessels of the heart, lungs, and human brain. As a result, the probability of developing a heart attack, pulmonary embolism and ischemic stroke is very high.
Antiaggretates are not a cure for varicose veins, but are used as a means of preventing serious complications: thrombosis and thrombophlebitis. We can say that these drugs save the life of the patient and minimize the threat of disability.
Removal of the damaged veins of the lower extremities or their parts is done through incisions or punctures. Removal of diseased vessels in the clinic is necessary if:
- the leg veins are pathologically enlarged;
- the skin is affected;
- trophic ulcers appeared;
- thrombophlebitis worsened.
The surgical treatment of varicose veins of the legs is contraindicated:
- for severe hypertension, coronary artery disease, infectious diseases, eczema;
- if the patient has already reached old age;
- during pregnancy (more than 5 months).
In addition to medical and surgical treatment, additional therapy is of considerable importance, including a series of measures to bring the veins back to normal:
- The wrap has a relaxing effect, it eliminates the feeling of heaviness in the legs. When buying the necessary funds, it is worth remembering that hot bandages are contraindicated for varicose veins.
- Foot baths are another way to help relieve stress on your feet. Using medicinal herbs and oils, you can strengthen blood vessels, get rid of swelling and redness. But the effect will be only with the daily use of the method.
- Contrast shower. 10 seconds of cold water and 30 seconds of warm water (hot water is best avoided) for 5 to 7 minutes each morning will help keep your veins in good shape. For these purposes, you can use the Alekseev or Charcot shower.
Phlebologists often include physical therapy in complex treatments: laser, magnetotherapy, electrophoresis.
They do not cause discomfort or pain, they are inexpensive and quite effective. In addition, the treatment is carried out under the supervision of medical professionals. The main condition is regular visits to the office.
Physiotherapy has a beneficial effect on the state of the vein walls, muscle tissue and valve activity.
Compression therapy is an important component not only of treatment, but also of prevention and the postoperative period. The use of bandages will avoid stagnant processes, give support to the damaged vessels and stop the progression of the disease.
The application of bandages requires some knowledge and skill, as excessive tightening can lead to deterioration and a weak bandage will not give the desired effect. Therefore, for the correct use of bandages, it is advisable to consult a doctor.
Massage for varicose veins is not allowed in all cases, so only a doctor can say whether it is worth using in a particular case or not. If the method is chosen correctly, after the first session you can feel the result. This method can lead to an improvement in blood microcirculation, relieve the main symptoms of the disease, including external ones.
The more advanced the disease, the more difficult it is to fight it and sometimes patients arrive too late and then there is only one way out: phlebectomy. To prevent this from happening, you should not wait for complications to arise, but rather receive timely qualified assistance.
Phlebologists in the treatment of varicose veins strive to dispense with traumatic operations that are not necessary in the early stages of the disease. For example, this is typical of reticular varicose veins, the manifestation of which is limited only to blue venous networks. Medications help improve the condition of the valves and vessel walls. Men, like women, should wear compression stockings. Pathology cannot be completely cured. However, conservative methods stop the development of varicose veins and protect against complications.
Physical therapy specialists know how to remove veins in the legs by performing physical therapy exercises. This is possible as long as the exercise, which improves blood flow in the legs, is done consistently. For example:
- In a standing position, the heels of the feet are raised vigorously alternately.
- In the same standing position, they rise slowly on tiptoe and descend just as slowly.
- Sitting in a chair, roll a small ball on the floor with your feet back and forth.
Wear special underwear
Doctors recommend combining medical treatment for varicose veins with the use of compression underwear; These are products made with a special type of knitwear that puts pressure (compression) on the veins. The degree of pressure of clothing on the walls of the vessels can be adjusted by purchasing products with different degrees of compression.
There are four degrees of compression in total: the first is used for prevention, the rest for treatment. With varicose veins of the lower extremities, stockings, stockings, knee-highs and tights are worn, the doctor selects the required degree of compression.
Compression underwear creates a dense and crushing structure on the legs,thanks to this the following effects are developed:
- The weakened leg muscles are supported.
- The walls of the blood vessels are compressed, preventing them from stretching.
- Lymphatic flow and blood circulation are stimulated.
- The deadlock is removed.
- The function of the venous valves is normalized.
- The load on dilated veins is reduced.
- Thrombophlebitis is prevented.
It is mandatory to wear compression stockings after varicose vein surgery. Underwear helps prevent recurrence of the disease, creates additional support for the body during the rehabilitation period.
Compression sclerotherapy is a modern method of treating varicose veins, which consists of injecting drugs into the affected veins. As a result, sclerosing (sticking) of the venous walls occurs, the blood flow at the injection site stops, and the vein gradually dissolves or leaves a barely noticeable strand that does not bother the patient at all.
Sclerotherapy is most often performed when spider veins appear, when varicose veins are in the initial stage. With the progressive development of varicose veins of the legs, sclerotherapy treatment is carried out after analyzing the state of the venous valves and vascular walls, the functional characteristics of the patient's circulatory system.
If compression sclerotherapy is chosen, the patient undergoes a blood coagulation test and an ultrasound examination of the veins. When performing sclerotherapy, the patient does not experience painful sensations, since the drug is injected into a vein with the thinner needle. After the procedure is complete, a sterile bandage is applied to the drug administration area, the patient puts on a compression garment. The first week after sclerotherapy, compression stockings should be worn 24 hours a day, then allowed to be removed at night.
Positive results of sclerotherapy:
- Restoration of effective blood flow.
- Exclusion of blood clots in the damaged vein.
- Prevention of trophic disorders in tissues.
- Elimination of the clinical symptoms of varicose veins: edema, seizures, pain.
- Excellent cosmetic effect due to the fact that the dilated veins disappear completely.
For more effective treatment of leg varicose veins, it is important to properly organize nutrition. Berries, apples, citrus, which contain flavonoids, antioxidants, rutin, help to improve the condition of blood vessels. Diluting the blood provides a daily intake of a sufficient amount of fluid (1. 5-2 liters). The diet with varicose veins on the legs is incompatible with fatty, fried foods, hot spices and alcohol.
Treating varicose veins with home remedies at home in summer is especially effective. The following recipes are popular:
- 15-20 minute leg compresses with tomato paste. It is high in lycopene, which actively strengthens blood vessels and prevents the formation of blood clots. At the same time, it is useful to eat fresh tomatoes every day.
- Infusion of sweet clover, an essential herb for varicose veins: Art. l. The raw materials are made with two glasses of boiling water, kept until cool, and filtered. They drink half a glass 3 times a day, the rest of the volume is used as a lotion.
What not to do
When you are diagnosed with varicose veins, attention should be paid to lifestyle, nutrition and sports.Not allowed:
- active physical activity, running, jumping (yoga classes allowed);
- prolonged standing or prolonged sitting position;
- use of all medications without consulting a phlebologist;
- long flights with a forced immobile position of the legs. Also, at high altitudes, a sharp thickening of the blood occurs, which leads to the formation of blood clots;
- taking hot baths, visiting a sauna;
- suction cup and honey massage is strictly prohibited, only manual medical massage is allowed.
trophic ulcersis a form of complication in varicose veins, manifested in the development and deepening of an ulcer that does not heal in the long term. Usually a separate painful ulcer develops on the lower leg, within which "suppuration" is often seen in the form of bloody serous fluid draining over the affected tissues.
Urgent medical attention
Immediate medical attention is required if any of the following symptoms occur:
- Increased pain in the affected limb, inability to get out of bed or take some steps;
- The skin on the leg is warm, swollen and firm to the touch.
- Skin color changes from pale to blue or bluish-red;
- Sudden shortness of breath, shortness of breath, sweating and severe weakness;
- Bleeding from affected skin or varicose veins.
Medications needed for lower extremity varicose veins should be included in the complex treatment regimen.Even after surgery, several courses of phlebotonic and antiplatelet agents will be requiredto prevent possible trophic disorders, inflammation, and complications in the context of the disease.
Many multicomponent varicose vein drugs work in combination, they have several functions. The effectiveness of such drugs is more pronounced.It is optimal to use the treatment courses in the correct dose, calculated by the phlebologist, in combination with compression therapy, yoga classes, swimming in the pool, medicinal herbs.
Complex treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities involves the use of various therapeutic methods.
Along with medication, physiotherapy, special exercises, massages, etc. are prescribed.