From the article, you will learn what signs can indicate varicose veins of the lower extremities, the causes of pathology, treatment and prevention at home.
WHAT IS VARICOSIS?
Varicose veins are a pathology of the veins, which is based on a malfunction of the vascular valve apparatus with the formation of venous insufficiency, lumen expansion, congestion, which are accompanied by a constant tissue paste.
MAIN CAUSES OF PATHOLOGY
Varicose veins in the legs have different causes and symptoms, which have minor gender characteristics.The main common trigger of the condition is called congenital weakness of the connective tissue.Second are hormonal changes, which is why women are diagnosed with varicose veins more often. A prolonged static position, sitting or standing, plays an important role, while the longer the legs, the more serious the situation. The extra kilos also cause increased pressure in the veins of the lower extremities, as well as a lack of physical activity. Smoking, pregnancy, concomitant pathologies, tight underwear, shoes, heels, everything that causes stagnation of blood circulation in the veins of the legs are risk factors for varicose veins.
SYMPTOMS AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
The signs of varicose veins in women and men do not differ fundamentally. This is a disease in stages, the symptoms of which correlate with the stage in the development of the pathological process.
The first stage is characterized by minor clinical manifestations: the veins barely protrude from the surface of the skin, the dermis is slightly hyperemic, the heaviness in the legs begins to bother, the evening splicing of the legs, ankles andseizures are possible. Such symptoms of varicose veins of the legs are especially painful for women from an aesthetic point of view. The pain is usually preceded by visual signs.
In the second stage, the clinical picture takes on a typical appearance: the leg veins protrude prominently above the skin surface, are well palpable, resemble ganglia. If the pathological process progresses, the veins of the lower extremities acquire sinuous shapes, a bluish-purple hue, sometimes turning black.
Symptoms of varicose veins of the legs of the third stage are characterized by the development of complications: trophic disorders appear, the skin resembles parchment, edema and cramps become common, the legs are covered witha rash, they begin to itch, secondary flora joins, layers of pyoderma, dermatitis, eczema.
The fourth stage of varicose veins of the lower extremities is the most serious in terms of symptoms: the skin over the bulging veins becomes inflamed, nearby tissues are involved, trophic ulcers open, pain in the legs withVaricose veins is permanent, the addition of a secondary infection causes thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, urgencyhospitalization, complex treatment.
WHICH DOCTOR TO CONSULT?
A phlebologist is involved in leg pain with varicose veins, but a vascular surgeon can also make the initial appointment. It all depends on the severity of the pathology. The phlebologist prescribes conservative therapy or refers to a vascular surgeon for consultation to resolve the problem of surgery.
Without a thorough clinical and laboratory examination, an accurate diagnosis cannot be made. Instrumental diagnostic methods help to clarify the stage of pathology, the duration of the tests takes 10 minutes, maximum - half an hour. The doctor announces the test result immediately, at the first appointment. The choice of the appropriate therapy depends on the stage of the pathology.
The therapy for varicose veins is based on the "three pillars": pharmacological treatment, minimally invasive techniques, operative classics.
In addition to the mandatory general recommendations for varicose veins: regular and dosed physical activity, minimization of static load on the legs, exercise therapy, use of compression stockings, use of elastic bandages; conservative therapy involves the appointment of phlebotonics based on flavonoids, horse chestnut extract. These are systemic drugs in tablets: synthetic and based on natural ingredients.
Most often, oral administration is combined with external therapy of the same name for varicose veins. According to doctors and patients, the combination of capsules and gel is more effective.
Of course, a complete cure should not be expected from conservative methods, drugs cannot restore dilated veins, but as a preventive measure, in preparation for an operation, the impossibility of surgical treatment of varicose veins: these drugs ensure the suspension of the progression of the disease and relieve symptoms.
The essence of minimally invasive therapy for varicose veins is to inject a special sclerosing drug into the dilated vein. Through a syringe, the doctor injects a foamy solution into the vein, which fills the deformed vessel, causing spasms.
The patient is fitted with a compression stocking, which is designed to keep the vessel in this state. Within three days, the vein walls come together, the vessel is disconnected from the usual blood flow, and it is neglected. You must wear compression stockings for at least a month, sometimes two. The efficacy criteria of the treatment carried out are the adhesions formed.
Compression sclerotherapy is performed if varicose veins are not complicated by reverse blood flow from deep vessels to superficial vessels through communicating veins.If there is such a backflow, the effectiveness of the procedure tends to zero.
Operation - has been and continues to be the most reliable and effective way to treat varicose veins, regardless of the presence of reverse blood flow in the veins. But even here it is important to consult a doctor in time, since relapses often occur in the later stages. Varicose veins are operated on with different techniques: microsurgery, radiofrequency and laser coagulation of deformed veins.
In the early stages, photocoagulation or laser removal of spider veins is effective. In the later stages, phlebectomy is indicated - complete removal of the affected veins. The operation is traumatic, there is a risk of complications, which is why today doctors are trying to use the less invasive miniphlebectomy technique. If varicose veins are complicated by venous thrombosis, a secondary infection,crossectomy, is performed.
WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH VARICOSIS OF THE LEGS AT HOME?
The essence of using home remedies for the prevention and treatment of varicose veins comes down to removing toxins and toxins from the body with the restoration of normal blood flow. To do this, they balance the diet, including cabbage, tomatoes, bell peppers, herbs, citrus fruits, apples, peaches, cherries, cherries, strawberries, currants, currants in daily dishes. Make sure to calculate the correct drink serving: 40 ml per kilogram of weight.
In addition, they use the properties of green tomatoes, which are tied in slices to the varicose vein area in the form of compresses. The effect is guaranteed by lycopene, an antioxidant in the fruit pulp, which improves the structure of the vascular wall and tones the veins. You can try the juice-based treatment: all vegetables that are eaten raw are suitable.
A garlic and lemon extract is effective: phytoncides dissolve cholesterol plaques, cleaning the lumen of the blood vessels, a natural antibiotic, which is garlic, kills pathogenic flora and vitamin C strengthens the wall of theveins, prevents the deposition of salts. The tincture is prepared simply: chop 4 unpeeled lemons, 4 large heads of garlic, put the mixture in a jar, fill with warm boiled water, insist under the lid for three days, shake the container daily, filter, store cold, drink a third of the glass during meals three times / day. Of course: drink 12 liters of the resulting solution.
Apple cider vinegar is popularly considered a source of minerals and vitamins; for varicose veins, it is taken orally in the morning and at night by dissolving two teaspoons of the product in a glass of water. Externally: rub varicose veins with a tampon soaked in vinegar to relieve itching and pain.
The compresses are made with honey, applying a sterilized napkin with the product in the area of the varicose veins for a couple of hours under a film. Use vegetable oil torn cabbage leaves under a bandage overnight. Course - month.
The prevention of varicose veins has two objectives: to prevent the onset of the disease and to reduce the number of relapses. For this: you can not go to the sauna or take too hot baths, lift weights. It is recommended to move a lot, excluding strength sports, to control weight and to minimize the consumption of too spicy and fatty foods.
No need to wear tight clothing, socks, knee-high stockings, stockings with a tight elastic band, cross your legs while sitting. Women are encouraged to forgo high heels.
At night: take cold foot baths, you can wet your feet with cold water in the morning. It is necessary to abandon bad habits, master the point of self-massage: caress the skin of the lower extremities from the bottom up and in the opposite direction for 10 minutes, minimize stress, avoid overheating, colds, undergo medical examination.
With varicose veins, it is reasonable to visit the pool, walk on foot, take a contrast shower at home, and constantly wear compression stockings.