Normally varicose veins affecting the lower extremities, may develop years or even decades. Varicose veins (varicose veins) in the feet is always a malfunction of the valves of the veins and the blood flow. Proper blood flow is characterized by the movement of the blood through the veins of the legs in the direction from bottom to top (opposite of the force of the attraction). In great extent this process is possible thanks to the work of the venous valves, which prevent the reverse current of the blood. The malfunction in the operation of these valves give rise to the violation of the bleeding vein, and as a result of the distension of the veins. By the veins the blood begins to flow in an order that is chaotic, often zastaivayas in the veins of the legs. Due to the rise in this significant context of the pressure of the walls do not support, to be expanded and simplified. The expansion of vienna to the naked eye visible under the skin in the form of nodes. Often, due to the slowdown in the blood flow in the veins spread occurs the blood clots. The violation of the processes of nutrition of the epidermis leads to the appearance of venous ulcers.
The causes of the development of the varicose disease in the legs a lot:
- Genetic predisposition (inheritance is transmitted by predisposing disease factors innate weakness of the vein walls and valve timing of the unit, loss of elasticity).
- Violation of the circulation of the blood in the bottom of constipation, wear footwear narrow, the tobacco, the deficit of physical activity.
- The reception of hormonal drugs (single-phase pills with high doses of estrogen lead to the thickening of the blood).
- The increased pressure in the venous type, provocaverunt obesity, pregnancy, sedentary lifestyle (sedentary work), a permanent vertical loads (workers, all day are standing on the feet).
- Hormonal changes in old age.
These reasons can also cause pathological the blood stream through the veins of the lower extremities – refluxus or reverse the current of the blood from the deeper veins in the superficial veins. The same causes contribute to worsening of the disease in the future.
The symptoms of varicose veins in the legs
- the extension of the veins saphenous;
- the sensation of burning or heat on the implementation of the veins of the lower extremities;
- feeling of heaviness in the legs;
- the swelling of the soft tissues of the lower extremities in the evening (the area of stop, ankles, thighs);
- nocturnal cramps in the calf muscles;
- the priming and compaction of the skin of pimples;
- the pain by the departure of the veins;
- ulcers trophic.
In each patient, symptoms varicose veins may be different, but one point remains constant feeling of heaviness in the legs, which is still known as the "syndrome of the heavy feet". Often it is symptomatic of the structure are most pronounced in the evening, as well as during the heat wave.
If the disease has started, the skin of the legs became cyanotic clear, and the patient at this point any type of treatment is not obtained, there is rarely observed hyperpigmentation of the skin, and lipodermatosclerosis, and in more severe cases, ulcers develop trophic.
The danger is not the varicose veins, and penetrating into the bottom of the complications – thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the inner wall of the vein), which leads to the formation of blood clots. The blood clots often overlap to a lumen of the vein (phlebothrombosis), and you can also exit and enter the lungs. As a result of the serious complications of varicose veins among patients who occurs the death.
The diagnosis of varicose veins in the legs
When it detects a host of the symptoms mentioned previously, or at least some of them, you should immediately to your doctor phlebologist or vascular surgeon. The timeliness of the detection of the disease depends on the nature of the treatment and prevention, as well as the development of complications.
For the diagnosis of varicose veins is assigned to the following studies.
- The ultrasound of the veins or double-scanning – evaluation of the feasibility and the extensions of the veins, the direction of the current of the blood, as well as the determination of the existence of a blood clot in the veins.
- In contrast venography – assessment of the status of the veins, the determination of the existence of tumors and blood clots, through recreate the exact "print" of the veins of the patient in the x-ray. Typically, this method is replaced by the ultrasound, since the latter is considered the most easy to apply.
When to consult a doctor without delay
The appearance of the following symptoms of a hike to a doctor should be immediately:
- The onset of acute pain in the lower extremities in any movement. To the east of the leg with the sight of the swollen and very thick, the skin as if it is switched on.
- A feeling of weakness, with shortness of breath, feeling of lack of oxygen.
- Of affected by the illness of vienna of the early exudation of blood.
Treatment of varicose veins in the legs
Conservative methods for the treatment of varicose veins.
Non-surgical method of treatment is applied in the initial stage of development of the disease, when there are no complications. Conservative practices of reception of specialized drugs (angioprotectors, anticoagulants, venotoniki, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of tablets, ointments, and gels), which can help to relieve the pain, as well as in the prevention of complications.
Of great importance in the treatment of varicose veins is the recovery of the tonicity of the walls of the vessels. It is possible with the help of special tools. The tool manufacturer national contains no dyes, has no coating, without preservatives, that is why the substance diosmin is absorbed more quickly, thus reducing to a minimum the possibility that manifestations of allergic reactions.
Non-surgical therapy of varicose veins, additionally it provides for the placement of a compression of the underwear, the fulfillment of a special diet systematic physical activities (complex treatment of exercises).
These measures reduce the venous insufficiency, thus avoiding the development of thrombophlebitis. Onwards, the doctor in addition to the above measures of treatment varicose veins, you may designate a course or hardware manual lymphatic drainage treatments to improve the reflux of the blood from the lower limbs, reducing swelling. The effect of the procedure is not long-lasting.
Treatment of varicose veins with leeches.
Treatment with leeches is very effective for the treatment of varicose veins. Penetrating in its interior is affected by the disease of vienna, the saliva of the leeches, thanks to the content in it hirudin (natural heparin), contributes to the liquefactionibus of the blood and prevents the formation of blood clots. Today from hirudin created drugs, thanks to that "contact with leeches" can be avoided.
Modern bezoperatsionnye methods of treatment of varicose veins in the legs.
Sclerotherapy is the most effective non-surgical treatment of varicose veins. During the procedure in the lumen of the diseased vessel, the doctor enters the drug causes the agglutination of their walls, and in the future (within 1.5 years) of their reabsorption. Normal therapeutic course in the stage of spider veins includes 3 to 6 of the procedures in each of the legs. The result will be visible after 2 to 8 weeks, during which you can observe the pain, bruising, mild tingling sensation, which gradually will be carried out. Enter the the drug in each case in a personalized way, so that the risk of complications is minimal. During the treatment the patient must wear compression knitwear.
The effectiveness of sclerotherapy in the treatment of varicose veins can be compared to the classic surgery, yields to it only the most modern techniques - endovenous laser coagulation, which is due to the appearance of "foam form" (foam) sclerotherapy, as well as the performance of procedures under ultrasound or translyuministsentnoy of the lamp. All of this sometimes reduced the amount of side effects.
Sclerotherapy can be carried out with the use of the ultrasound scanner, then the procedure is called echosclerotherapy. Additional application of scanner allows the doctor to completely control the movement of the needle in vienna and distribution of the drug.
If the drug is introduced in the modified vein in the form of microfoam nitrile, the procedure is called a foam-form sclerotherapy. Thanks to a closer contact with microfoam nitrile venous walls method has a high efficiency. Dislodging the blood of a vessel, the microfoam contributes to the more rapid agglutination and the lock functions.
endovasal or endovenous coagulation by laser.
One of the most modern and least traumatic treatment options for varicose veins in the legs. The impact of a laser beam in the damaged vein is performed under local anesthesia. The results are visible after a month after the procedure. The method is quite expensive.
Pharmacotherapy varicose veins in the legs well supplement remedies, which not only will improve the tone and elasticity of the venous walls, but to advise with the further development of the disease. The recipes of traditional medicine when used regularly, help to cure very advanced cases of the disease (skin ulcers, thrombosis).
Before participating in the treatment, it is important to identify the cause of the disease, turning to your doctor not to tighten too much and do not stop complications (skin ulcers, thrombosis), treatment can begin as soon as possible, while the thick veins on the surface does not exceed 5 mm, while the nodes of not more than 7 mm At the time the therapeutic course is recommended to wear clothes and shoes, not restricting the movement, leave the heavy and physical activity habits of throwing leg.
Modern methods of operational (surgical) treatment of varicose veins in the legs
In the absence of the results desired due to conservative treatment of varicose veins requires surgery. Surgery is a definitive method for the treatment of the disease, during which removal is performed, as amended from vienna. Today this is done under tumescent anesthesia (local anesthesia of the mixture of anesthetics natural). The advantages of the method is that the patient can leave the clinic after two hours after surgery, no bruising after surgery, the easier it is for transfers, not of intoxication, and during the operation under general anesthesia.
Phlebectomy – through the perforations is removed, modified by the disease of the veins, in order to normalize the blood flow in the deep veins of the. The operation, in some cases, it is preferable to sclerotherapy. Among the advantages we observe a rapid recovery of the patient, small scars, in addition, the effect is maintained for years.
Short Peel – removal only modified the phase of vienna through two small incisions. In advance determine the location and extent of the affected vein. The method of the soft tissues of the patient does not suffer, there is a rapid recovery, the absence of pain after the surgery.
Endoscopic dissectione veins - with this method, the doctor with the help of a small size affected vienna enter in it an endoscope, that gives the possibility of obtaining data about the internal situation of the varicose vein, the extension of the affected area, as well as with an accuracy of control of his actions at the time of trimming of the phase of vienna, while minimizing the trauma.
The prevention of varicose veins in the legs
- The limitation on the use of the sauna, taking hot baths, prolonged exposure to the sun (all this leads to reduction in the venous tone and blood stasis).
- Most of the motor activity (moderate jogging, swimming, hiking, water aerobics, cycling, skiing).
- The control of your weight.
- The resignation of the tight, clothing and narrow and narrow and narrow shoes.
- Get rid of the habit of sitting "one foot in the leg".
- Avoid constipation (eat a balanced diet, follow regimen of drinking).
- Evenly distribute the load on the legs (do not sit or do not hold it for a long time in the same position).
- Cold showers and pour off the feet.
- The use of a compression of the underwear of the people who are in the risk group (pregnant women with a hereditary predisposition, the workers, which sedentary work, or whose work is related to serious physical or of the need to spend the whole day on the legs).
- Therapeutic exercise.
During the treatment of varicose veins of any physical exercise are prohibited, only with the purposes of prevention.
The diet of varicose veins
- Salt restriction, acute and smoked foods.
- The abstinence from alcohol.
- Restriction of meat products.
- The enrichment of the diet of fresh fruits and vegetables, products, contribute to the strengthening of the walls of the blood vessels (carrots, olive oil, nuts, rosehip, green tea, sprouted grains of wheat, legumes, green onion).
- A daily intake of apple cider vinegar (in a glass of water 2 teaspoons).
When it detects the same of the first signs of varicose veins immediately and consult a specialist. People who enter the risk group (those who have predisposing factors are), and who have a hereditary predisposition to varicose disease are recommended to have more than two years of attending flebologa mandatory to perform an ultrasound examination.